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miércoles, 11 de junio de 2014

Nelson Mandela



                                   NELSON MANDELA






He was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, Cape.

Five years herding sheep and calves. He was one of 15 children of Henry Mgadla Mandela, chief advisor of the Supreme Leader Thembuland, who at the death of his father became tutor Mandela. Upon completion of primary education at a local mission school, studied at the University College of Fort Hare to obtain his Bachelor of Arts and where it comes into contact with politics and meet Oliver Tambo. Both took part in a student strike in 1940 which led to his expulsion from the center. Then he meets Walter Sisulu, who gave him a job at a law firm.

In 1944, along with Sisulu, Tambo and Anton Lembede, founded the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC). It became the national secretary of this organization in 1948 and although he was opposed in principle to collaborate with other racial groups, changed his mind in 1952 during the course of the so-called 'Campaign Challenge'. Therefore advocated joint action against the government policy of apartheid. At this time, it was already national president of the youth wing of the ANC and, Tambo, had founded the first law firm run by blacks in South Africa. In December 1952, he was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act (Suppression of Communism Act). Although his nine-month sentence was put on hold, was forbidden to attend meetings or leave the district of Johannesburg. This prohibition was renewed repeatedly over the next nine years. Despite this prohibition, he continued to work with the leaders of the ANC. In December 1956 he was, along with 156 other people, tried for treason. The trial lasted until 1961 and ended with the acquittal of all charges. After the Sharpeville massacre, in which 69 black citizens were killed by the South African security forces during a demonstration against apartheid were banned ANC and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). In March 1961, in order to avoid arrest and a new prohibition, Mandela went underground and, with Sisulu, secretly ran the country to organize a three-day strike. In June 1961, the ANC leadership decided to launch the armed struggle and formed the Umkhonto we Size ('Spear of the Nation), the armed wing of the ANC, with Mandela as the leader. In January 1962, he left South Africa and went to the Pan-African Conference in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Later he traveled to Algeria, where he trained for guerrilla warfare, and finally to London, the city where he met with leaders of the opposition in exile. He returned home in July of that year and was arrested on August 5 on charges of rebellion and leaving the country illegally, so he was sentenced to five years in prison. While in jail, the police searched the ANC headquarters in Rivonia. Most of the leading members of this organization were arrested; also confiscated several documents, among which was the diary written by Mandela during his trip abroad.

He and other activists were tried in what is known as the Treason Trial Rivonia. Lasted from October 1963 to June 1964 and conducted his own defense and that of the other defendants. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. For over 25 years he was the world's most famous political prisoner. Spent eighteen years in prison on Robben Island before being transferred to Pollsmoor (Cape Town) in 1982, in which an international campaign was launched for his release. During the years he spent in prison on Robben Island, he was forced to perform hard labor in the mines of the island lime works. Were not allowed to wear dark glasses and sun reflections on the lime damaged his eyes forever. While in jail, his mother died and one of his sons, but was refused permission to attend his funeral. In 1985 he refused the offer Pieter Willem Botha President parole on the premise that the president was not willing to change its position on apartheid.

The government of President Frederik Willem de Klerk released Mandela in February 1990, after legalizing the ANC and other political parties. Mandela assumed leadership of the ANC and led the negotiations with the government between the difficult years of 1990 and 1994, when it often seemed that the negotiations were to break and explode violence. In 1991, the South African regime repealed the last of the laws that formed the legal basis for apartheid. Mandela and de Klerk shared the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to establish democracy and racial harmony in South Africa. In May 1994, after the first general elections in which all racial groups (including blacks) were entitled to vote, Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. On assuming office as president gave up a third of the salary and created the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. Following parliamentary approval in May 1996 of the new South African Constitution, Mandela himself signed it in December of that year to thousands of people in Johannesburg, thus ending the period of democratic transition began with his release from prison in 1990 and also meaning the disappearance of the coalition government formed by the ANC and the National Party of Frederik Willem de Klerk. Mandela became definitely, in 1997, the undisputed leader of African international relations, mediating several conflicts, as in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) in the first half of that year eventually spell the end of regime of Mobutu Sese Seko.

The June 20, 1999, Mandela hands over power to his successor, Thabo Mbeki, and retires from politics, at least formally. Since leaving office held several positions of leadership in various areas, including negotiations on the conflict in the Great Lakes region.

In July 2001, Nelson Mandela's office announced that former South African President, suffers from prostate cancer.

Mandela was married three times and had 5 children. Winnie Mandela, ex-wife, was arrested on charges of fraud and theft in a case of bank loans. His last wife is the former first lady of Mozambique Graça Machel.

He received more than a hundred honorary degrees and awards from around the world.

Nelson Mandela died with his family at his home in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa, around 20:50 local time on December 5, 2013, at age 95.

The former South African president and leader in the fight against Apartheid years ago dragged from a delicate state of health. He was hospitalized on June 8 this year in Pretoria, due to pneumonia, which kept him out of official acts. His last public appearance was in 2010 during the World Cup held in the country.

there are some photos of nelson mandela:



Nelson Mandela


















ILHAM MAIZI 3ªBX

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